Field of Science

Spirituality linked to brain damage

Brain activity changes when people undergo spiritual or religious experiences. This isn't surprising, of course, since it's the brain that generates these mental states. Studying just how brain activity changes as people think religious thoughts or experience spiritual or transcendental experiences gives a window into how they are generated in the brain and how they link to other kinds of experiences.

The religious tend to take a dualist approach to these kinds of results, arguing that these changes in brain activity are somehow just a signal, or only part of the story. The actual spiritual experience is generated somewhere else, and the brain activity is just the physical manifestation.

But this argument crumbles if spiritual experiences can be generated by actively changing brain activity. There is some evidence already that this is so. Most famously, Michael Persinger at Laurentian University has found that using electromagnets to stimulate the temporal lobe can generate spiritual feelings (although recently Swedish researchers were not able to duplicate his results).

So what's the connection to brain damage? Well, a new study by Brick Johnstone and Bret Glass at the University of Missouri-Columbia has found that people with evidence of brain damage to their right parietal lobes score higher on a standard measure of spirituality.

What they did was to assess 26 adults with modest traumatic brain injury (they were all walking wounded, able to function in the outside world) to a battery of tests of brain function. What they were expecting to see was that brain damage in the right parietal lobe would increase spirituality, but that damage to the frontal lobe or left temporal lobe would decrease spirituality.

In fact, damage to the frontal lobe did not seem to have any effect, and although there was a slight signal with damage to the left temporal lobe, it wasn't statistically significant.

Interestingly, the effects of damage to the right parietal lobe match with previous studies looking at brain activity in meditating Buddhist monks. When they achieved a transcendental state, activity in their parietal lobes was also quelled.

So it seems that shutting down this part of the brain seems essential for at least some aspects of religious experiences. Why this particular bit of the brain? Well, it's all to do with how we figure out where we are, and how we relate to the world around us. As Johnstone & Glass explain:
From a neuropsychological perspective, the right hemisphere allows for individuals to define themselves in relation to the immediate environment, the here-and-now. The right parietal lobe is generally associated with awareness of the self relative to other objects in space, awareness of the self as perceived by others in social situations, and the ability to critically evaluate one’s own strengths and weaknesses (such as insight). Disorders of the right hemisphere involve a diminished capacity in the ability of the self to function in the immediate environment, including difficulties localizing the body in space...
In other words, it's this bit of the brain that figures out where you are in time and space. If it breaks down, you'll experience some pretty freaky sensations - which, if you are so inclined, the rest of your brain will interpret as a religious experience.

ResearchBlogging.org

Brick Johnstone, Bret A Glass (2008). Support for a neuropsychological model of spirituality in persons with traumatic brain injury Zygon, 43 (4), 861-874

8 comments:

  1. So as you lose yourself, you find religion?

    ReplyDelete
  2. What bothers me is that; One... the study group were too small to get a reliable result and can therefore not be taken serious, and Two... is that it could not be duplicated.

    I must also say that I can't take Michael Persinger too serious. I feel that he is "always grasping for straws". As can be seen in his earlier work.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Oh! Sorry, but I read it to fast and my english is not that good.
    Hmmm...

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi Hannah, although the study group is small, the results are statistically significant. Which means that the group is large enough to get a meaningful result out of it.

    And the study can be repeated. Just get a different group of people with brain damage, and see if the results hold for them.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hey Tom, I would like to volunteer my soon to be ex-husband for any future studies for brain damaged individuals and spirituality. He and his new girlfriend are now Pagan and Wiccan and pray to their Goddess. He testifies to his Goddess intervening in his newfound life! I think he would be a perfect subject!

    ReplyDelete
  6. >standard measure of spirituality
    >this is science
    I lol'd.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello Tomas Rees.

    I sent you an email last night drawing your attention to this blog of mine on the topic: bit.ly/13YGlpb. Have you had a chance to review it?

    Shantanu Panigrahi

    ReplyDelete

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